Method used: Selective word study from the Old Testament.
Bible used: New King James Version, 1982, Thomas Nelson Inc.
Jos 11:1.2. “And it came to pass, when Jabin king of Hazor heard these things, that he sent to Jobab king of Madon, to the king of Shimron, to the king of Achshaph, and to the kings who were from the north, in the mountains, – – -.”
These are political kings from the north of Israel who came together with other kings to attack Joshua and the Israelites.
Is 14:31 “Wail, O gate! Cry, O city! All you of Philistia are dissolved; for smoke will come from the north.”
It is the Babylonians who came from the north and destroyed Philistia.
Is 41:25 “I have raised up one from the north, and he shall come; from the rising of the sun he shall call on My name; and he shall come against princes as through mortar.”
This is a combination of God calling Cyrus the king of Medo-Persians to administer punishment upon the kingdom of Israel. The Medo-Persians were from the North and East: the rising of the sun. For example they came from Babylon in the East and followed the river Euphrates to the North and then came from the North to Israel.
Jerm 1:14.15. “Then the Lord said to me: Out of the north calamity shall break forth on all the inhabitants of the land. For behold, I am calling all families of the kingdoms of the north, says the Lord; they shall come and each one set his throne at the entrance of the gates of Jerusalem, against all its walls all around and against all the cities of Judah.”
This is a combination of God calling the kingdom of Babylon or king of Babylon to administer punishment upon the kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Jerm 4:6 “Set up the standard towards Zion. Take refuge! Do not delay! For I will bring disaster from the north, and a great destruction. The lion has come up from his thicket. And the destroyer of nations is on his way.”
This is referring to both God and Babylon.
Jerm 6:1 “O you children of Benjamin, gather yourselves to flee from the midst of Jerusalem! Blow the trumpet in Tekoa, and set up a signal fire in Beth Haccerem; for disaster appears out of the north, and great destruction.”
This destructive power is both God and Babylon.
Jerm 6:22.23. Thus says the Lord: “Behold a people comes from the north country, and a great nation will be raised from the farthest parts of the earth. They will lay hold on bow and spear; they are cruel and have no mercy; their voice roars like the sea; and they ride on horses, as men of war set in array against you, O daughter of Zion.”
This power from the north is referring to Babylon.
Jerm 10:22. “Behold, the noise of the report has come, and a great commotion out of the north country, to make the cities of Judah desolate, a den of jackals.”
This power is referring to Babylon.
Jerm 25:26. “All the kings of the north, far and near, one with another; and all the kingdoms of the world which are on the face of the earth. Also the king of Sheshach shall drink after them.”
This is talking about Gods judgment on all the wicked nations of the world.
Jerm 46:20.24. “Egypt is a very pretty heifer, but destruction comes from the north.” “The daughter of Egypt shall be ashamed; she shall be delivered into the hand of the people from the north.”
This power from the north is Babylon.
Jerm 47:2. “Thus says the Lord: `Behold, waters rise out of the north, and shall be an overflowing flood; they shall overflow the land and all that is in it, the city and those who dwell within; then the men shall cry, and all the inhabitants of the land shall wail. At the noise of the stamping hooves of his strong horses, at the rushing of his chariots – – -.”
This power is referring to Babylon.
Jerm 50:3. “For out of the north a nation comes up against her, which shall make her land desolate, and no one shall dwell therein.”
This power from the north is Medo-Persia which attacked Babylon and conquered them.
Jerm 50:9 “For behold, I will raise and cause to come up against Babylon an assembly of great nations from the north country, and they shall array themselves against her: from there she shall be captured.”
The nation which conquered Babylon was Medo-Persia together with God.
Ezek 26:7 “For thus says the Lord God: Behold I will bring against Tyre from the north Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, king of kings, with horses, with chariots, and with horsemen, and an army with many people.”
The king of the north is Nebuchadnezzar from Babylon called by God in this text.
Job 37:22 “He comes from the north with golden splendor; with God is awesome majesty.”
God comes from the north in this text.
Psalm 48:1.2. “In the city of our God, in his holy mountain. Beautiful in elevation, the joy of the whole earth, is mount Zion on the sides of the north, the city of the great king.”
God is the king of the north on mount Zion.
Is 14:12.13. “How you are fallen from heaven, O Lucifer. – – -. For you have said in your heart: I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; I will also sit on the mount of the congregation on the farthest sides of the north.”
This is Satan´s wish to sit in the same place where God sits on the farthest sides of the north: on the mount of congregation in heaven.
The citation, king of the north in Daniel 11: primarily refers to God, and secondly to the king of Babylon, the king of Medo-Persia, and all the kings of the earth who do God´s bidding. Taking this into account one could say they are the kingdoms incorporated into the statue in Dan 2: called by God to achieve his purpose in the history of the world.
However, having said this, when the king of the North enforces heathen and pagan worship in his kingdom, like the emperor Nero, then he is transferring his allegiance to the king of the south, represented by Satan.
From this study one cannot conclude that the king of the north is the Little Horn power or the papacy.